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Why is type O blood type so special?

Representing almost half of the people in France, blood group O is therefore very widespread. It is also the most sought after blood group and is the opposite of group AB and more particularly AB+.

The Universal Donor

The existing blood groups are:A, B, AB and O. However, each group splits into two depending on their rhesus (- or +). You should know that this classification dates from the beginning of the 20th century, coming from the identification of an antigen, that is to say a substance targeted by an antibody on the surface of red blood cells.

Type O blood donations are the most popular, especially those from the O- group. Indeed, individuals with blood group O- are what are called universal donors . These do not have anti A or anti B antigens on the surface of their red blood cells. Their blood is therefore compatible with that of all other groups – and this regardless of their rhesus. This characteristic makes the blood of O- people invaluable in medicine, pending the possible future development of a universal blood.

The O+ group is slightly less interesting than O-:Gifts are for own group as well as others with the same rhesus (A+, B+, and AB+). Nevertheless, it remains a highly sought-after blood group since 85% of French people have a positive rh. Group B- comes next, which can be donated to groups AB+, AB -, B+ and of course B-. Let's also mention the group A -, which can give AB+, AB-, A+ and A -.

Group O- is the most "generous"

Other groups can also be used to make donations, but in a much more limited way . Thus, AB-, A+ and B+ people can only give to those in the AB+ group, in addition to those in their own group. Then the least compatible group of all regarding donations is none other than AB+, whose individuals can only donate to those in the same group.

AB+ is also paradoxically the group capable of receiving blood from any other group (universal receiver). In other words, the most compatible group at the reception level is the least interesting donor and vice versa. Indeed, O- is the most compatible for donations, but can only receive blood from individuals of the same group.

Finally, let's talk about a very special case, that of the rare blood group called "Bombay" (hh group). This group is very rare and is found more often in India than in the rest of the human population, hence its name. The individuals in this group are neither A, nor B, nor AB, nor O and unfortunately for them, the only compatible donors are those of the same group.